Microfluidics Là Gì


Microfluidics relates to the design và study of devices that move sầu or analyze the tiny amount of liquid, smaller than a droplet. Microfluidic devices have sầu microchannels ranging from submicron to few millimeters. To compare, a human hair is about 100 microns thiông chồng. Microfluidics has been increasingly used in the biological sciences because precise và controlled experiments can be conducted at a lower cost & faster pace. Lab on a CPU devices use microfluidics for applications such as Point of Care testing of diseases, or Organ on a Chip studies.

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Microfluidics systems work by using a pump và a chip. Different types of pumps precisely move sầu liquid inside the chip with a rate of 1 μL/minute to 10,000 μL/minute. For comparison, a small water drop is ~10 microliter (μL). Inside the chip, there are microfluidic channels that allow the processing of the liquid such as mixing, chemical or physical reactions. The liquid may carry tiny particles such as cells or nanoparticles. The microfluidic device enables the processing of these particles, for example, trapping và collection of cancer cells from normal cells in the blood.

A microfluidic chip is a device that enables a tiny amount of liquid to lớn be processed or visualized. The chip is usually transparent và its length or width are from 1 cm (0.5″) to 10 cm (4″). The chip thickness ranges from about 0.5 mm (1/64″) lớn 5 milimet (1/4″). Microfluidic chips have sầu internal hair-thin microchannels that are connected khổng lồ outside by means of holes on the chip called inlet/outlet ports. Microfluidic chips are made from thermoplastics such as acrylic, glass, silibé, or a transparent silicone rubber called PDMS.

Microfluidic chips are usually fabricated by making thin grooves or small wells on the surface of a layer, and then enclosing those features by means of a second layer khổng lồ form microchannels or chambers. Channels need khổng lồ be leak-proof thus the layers must be properly bonded. Depending on material choice, the channels are made via soft lithography, hot embossing, injection molding, micro-machining, or etching. 3D printing may be used for producing microfluidic chips, although it has serious limitations in terms of minimum feature kích thước, surface roughness, optical transparency, or choice of material.

There are several reasons lớn use microfluidics. First, to lớn make use of a small kích cỡ scale in the range of microns. For every 3D shape type, e.g. a rectangular channel or chamber, the ratio of surface area to volume increases as kích thước decreases. This makes it favourable for microchannels to captures targets such as cells, germs or nanoparticles. Alternatively, Magnetic or Electric fields are more effective at a short distance, making microfluidics ikhuyễn mãi giảm giá for sensing or detecting. Ability khổng lồ visualize and characterize small objects such as living cells is another advantage of microfluidics. Microfluidics is also used lớn miniaturize or integrate conventional laboratory practices by making lab on a chip devices khổng lồ save cost or reduce time.

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Microfluidics has application in most experimental science and engineering. Examples are molecular và cell biology research, genetics, fluid dynamics, micro-mixing, Point of Care Diagnostics, Lab on a Chip, Tissue engineering, Organ on a CPU, drug delivery device, fertility testing & assistance, synthesis of chemicals or proteins.



Droplet-based microfluidic has recently emerged as a powerful tool in the microfluidics domain name. Droplet microfluidic devices generate droplets of tiny volumes (nL to fL). There are three major applications for droplet microfluidics; molecular biology, microparticle synthesis, & microorganism studies. In molecular biology, droplets serve as bioreactors. Single cells are entrapped in the droplets where they experience a series of reactions where each droplet can be analyzed individually. For microparticle synthesis, the droplets are often made of hydrogels & are solidified after generation using a photo lớn, chemical, or thermal technique. In microorganism studies, the microorganisms are encapsulated within droplets for analyzing their responses khổng lồ various reagents for drug development.

A biochip is a small device that directly connects an organism khổng lồ an engineering system. To bởi so, biochips often include tiny built-in sensors that analyze biochemical targets in organisms such as cells, blood, or skin. Biochips utilize a wide array of technological advances such as microfluidics, microarrays, optics, or electronics. Current applications of biochips are in disease diagnostics, security, and gene sequencing, with many new applications emerging.

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A DNA chip is a device usually form size of a microscope slide containing thousands of pre-defined spots. Each of these spots hosts a unique probe that can bind lớn a specific target gene sequence. When a sample such as prepared & purified blood comes in liên hệ with the surface of the DNA CPU, the matching gene in the sample can pair with the probes on the DNA Chip. The researcher, then, uses a computer program to analyze the position of the spots to identify targets such as pathogens, mutations, etc.. in the sample.